Cross-Atlantic Combustion Modelling, Programming and Simulation
Climit-finansiering60 % from the Research Council, 15 % from industrial partners, 25 % international contribution
PartnereSandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, UC Berkeley, Stanford University, North Carolina State University, Brigham Young University, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Prosjektperiode2012 – 2015
The project aims at the achievement of fundamental knowledge for the development of high-fidelity numerical design tools that will ultimately enable energy-efficient, environmental-friendly and cost-competitive power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The scientific work is based on a cross-Atlantic collaboration and one secondary objective of CAMPS is to establish a US-Norwegian network of world-leading combustion experts within combustion modelling and simulation. Another objective is to propose improved models for describing fluid interaction with large clusters reacting particles relevant to CLC and oxy-combustion concepts. Finally, the aim is to provide detailed insight and validation databases for the development of full-scale models for hydrogen gas turbines.
The project research work focuses on the technical challenges related to optimization of combustion processes in large, state-of-the-art gas turbines and coal furnaces for power generation. The technologies to be investigated are:
• Combustion of hydrogen-rich fuels for pre-combustion CO2 capture
• Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal
• Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) for natural gas
Both the pre-combustion and oxy-fuel CO2 capture route are promising techniques for the development of efficient and cost-competitive CCS technologies. Clean, efficient and safe burning of hydrogen and H2-rich fuels is a key part of the pre-combustion CCS route. The goal of the industry is to develop new gas turbine combustors that can operate with low-carbon fuels, an achievement that will represent a considerable leap forward in environmental-friendly power generation from fossil fuels.
Both CLC and pulverized coal in oxygen atmospheres (oxy-coal) are part of the oxy-fuel CCS route. CLC is a potential breakthrough process within CCS. It is an oxy-combustion process without the need for a costly air separation unit, and with a potential for low CO2 capture costs. While CLC has the higher potential for high-efficiency power production, oxy-coal is a more mature technology and closer to commercial implementation.
The challenges of hydrogen combustion are linked to the particular thermo-physical properties of hydrogen compared to conventional hydrocarbons, leading to dramatically different combustion behaviour. Hence, the primary technology for low-NOx power generation in stationary gas turbines, lean premixed (LPM) combustion, is not yet developed for hydrogen combustion. Issues related to auto-ignition, flame stabilization, flashback, and NOx control need to be resolved in order to achieve a clean, efficient, and safe burning of H2-rich gases.
Pressing challenges within oxygen-based combustion of coal are related to fundamental combustion characteristics (ignition, extinction, mixing, and flammability), and the resulting emissions. Proper mixing and burnout of coal particles with a minimum pressure drop and low oxygen consumption are issues that need to be addressed. Knowledge needs exist related to how pulverized coal particles ignite and burn, both in air and oxygen atmospheres.
Both oxy-coal combustion and CLC face similar technological hurdles in that they involve dense populations of reactive particles. Densely packed particles will interact, and for reactive particles the interaction can be strong and have severe effects on the combustion process. The challenge is to understand the physics of interacting reactive particles and how this differs from the single particle behaviour. The development of commercial power plants based on oxy-coal or CLC critically relies on such physical understanding since industrial scale design models of the particulate fuel is needed.
Results achieved to date:
A US-Norwegian network for combustion modelling and simulation has been established
The network consists of the research partners SINTEF Energy Research, Sandia NL, UC Berkeley, Stanford University, Georgia Tech, North Carolina State, Brigham Young University, and NREL
One-year stay at Stanford University completed by Dr. Nils Erland Haugen
10-month stay at Sandia NL commenced by Dr. Andrea Gruber
Development of improved models for describing particle-fluid interaction of porous reacting particles, relevant to the development of CLC and oxy-combustion concepts
A stepping stone towards the development of coal or biomass gasifiers and oxy-fuel burners that ensure efficient use of the fuel and minimum consumption of oxygen
Stepping stones towards the development of hydrogen-fired gas turbine combustors relevant for pre-combustion CO2 capture
Preliminary estimates of turbulent flame speeds for premixed H2 combustion obtained for a range of conditions relevant to gas turbine combustors
Salient features of differential diffusion effects demonstrated in a hydrogen-rich jet using the LEM3D model